Thursday, December 23, 2010

define trade

noun, verb, trad·ed, trad·ing, adjective
the act or process of buying, selling, or exchanging commodities, at either wholesale or retail, within a country or between countries: domestic trade; foreign trade.
a purchase or sale; business deal or transaction.
an exchange of items, usually without payment of money.
any occupation pursued as a business or livelihood.
some line of skilled manual or mechanical work; craft: the trade of a carpenter; printer's trade.
people engaged in a particular line of business: a lecture of interest only to the trade.
market: an increase in the tourist trade.
a field of business activity: a magazine for the furniture trade.
the customers of a business establishment.
Informal .trade paper 
11. wind ( def. 1 ) .
–verb (used with object)
to buy and sell; barter; traffic in.
to exchange: to trade seats.
–verb (used without object)
to carry on trade.
to traffic (usually fol. by in ): a tyrant who trades in human lives.
to make an exchange.
to make one's purchases; shop; buy.
of or pertaining to trade or commerce.
used by, serving, or intended for a particular trade: trade journal.
Also, trades. of, composed of, or serving the members of a trade: a trade club.
trade down, to exchange a more valuable or desirable item for a less valuable or desirable one.
trade in, to give (a used article) as payment to be credited toward a purchase: We trade in our car every three years.
trade off, to exchange something for or with another.
trade on / upon, to turn to one's advantage, esp. selfishly or unfairly; exploit: to trade on the weaknesses of others.
trade up, to exchange a less valuable or desirable item for a more valuable or desirable one.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

World Markets

World Markets


*Daiwa's Information Bank The Daiwa Securities Group now provides a new Worldwide Web page to summarize first-half financial reports of listed and OTC Japanese companies. This new service is part of Daiwa's Corporate Information Bank (CIB) and will summarize midterm financial reports on the day following their release. It will also provide updated company forecasts of fiscal-year results.
*Daiwa Institute of Research
*Asia Inc., Online Covers business in Asia with audio, graphics and text and provides daily financial statistics and commentary.
*Nomura Project Finance International

North America

*Bank of Canada Currency Museum
*Canadian Financial Network provides a window on Canadian financial markets.
*Great West Life Assurance - Canada
*KPMG Canada. This page describes services of one of Canada's leading accounting organizations and lists a variety of business links in Canada.


*International Financial Encyclopeadia
*MATIF. MATIF is the French futures & options exchange and offers investors products such as Stock index, interest rate , foreign exchange, and commodities. The web site has historical data and statistics.
*ABN-Amro Bank
*Directory of Russian Banks
*Union Bank of Switzerland Technology Lab
*Finnish Finance Network
*FMS - FMS is a Frankfurt-based money newsletter reporting each week on Bundesbank, German interest rates, and European Monetary Union.
*Internet Securities. Internet Securities is a leading provider of on-line financial, market and economic data for investors in selected emerging markets of Eastern & Central Europe and Russia.
*Italian Stock Prices


*Australian Department of Finance
*Australian Stock Market and Historical Data Page


*East African Financial Markets Newsletter

# # Stock Market & Financial Markets Overview



DOW JONES INDUS. AVG 11,533.20 55.03 0.48% 16:30
S&P 500 INDEX 1,254.60 7.52 0.60% 12/21
NASDAQ COMPOSITE INDEX 2,667.61 18.05 0.68% 12/21
S&P/TSX COMPOSITE INDEX 13,365.20 171.87 1.30% 12/21
MEXICO IPC INDEX 38,230.90 255.38 0.67% 16:06
BRAZIL BOVESPA INDEX 68,214.90 951.26 1.41% 12/21

Europe, Africa and Middle East

Euro Stoxx 50 Pr 2,876.99 37.77 1.33% 12/21
FTSE 100 INDEX 5,951.80 60.19 1.02% 11:35
CAC 40 INDEX 3,927.49 42.41 1.09% 12/21
DAX INDEX 7,077.99 59.39 0.85% 12/21
IBEX 35 INDEX 10,203.40 207.30 2.07% 12/21
FTSE MIB INDEX 20,736.60 362.94 1.78% 12/21
AEX-Index 356.14 2.99 0.85% 12/21
OMX STOCKHOLM 30 INDEX 1,166.00 11.82 1.02% 12/21
SWISS MARKET INDEX 6,558.17 36.92 0.57% 12/21


NIKKEI 225 10,364.00 -6.51 -0.06% 19:11
HANG SENG INDEX 22,993.90 354.78 1.57% 12/21
S&P/ASX 200 INDEX 4,777.60 5.70 0.12% 19:31

Stock Futures


DJIA INDEX 11,464.00 -7.00 11,473.00 11,473.00 11,462.00 19:19
S&P 500 1,249.60 -1.10 1,250.30 1,250.20 1,249.20 19:07
NASDAQ 100 2,231.50 -3.75 2,231.25 2,232.50 2,230.50 19:15
S&P/TSX 60 759.00 10.80 749.60 761.20 749.60 12/21
MEX BOLSA 38,610.00 293.00 38,495.00 38,730.00 38,415.00 18:00
BOVESPA 69,301.00 893.00 68,700.00 69,430.00 68,700.00 12/21


DJ EURO STOXX 50 2,873.00 35.00 2,856.00 2,881.00 2,850.00 12/21
FTSE 100 5,907.00 50.00 5,861.00 5,920.00 5,857.00 12/21
CAC 40 10 EURO 3,928.50 40.00 3,911.00 3,940.00 3,903.00 12/21
DAX 7,088.50 51.50 7,065.00 7,105.50 7,059.00 12/21
IBEX 35 10,132.00 211.00 10,000.00 10,172.00 9,964.00 12/21
FTSE MIB 20,764.00 362.00 20,500.00 20,795.00 20,500.00 12/21
AMSTERDAM 356.25 2.80 355.80 357.20 355.20 12/21
OMXS30 1,167.00 13.00 1,159.00 1,168.50 1,159.00 12/21
SWISS MARKET 6,483.00 24.00 6,503.00 6,503.00 6,461.00 12/21


NIKKEI 225 10,350.00 0.00 10,360.00 10,370.00 10,340.00 19:11
HANG SENG 22,960.00 262.00 22,758.00 23,067.00 22,691.00 12/21
SPI 200 4,772.00 6.00 4,767.00 4,787.00 4,762.00 19:23


Nymex Crude Future 90.06 0.24 0.27 19:22
Nymex Henry Hub Future 4.08 0.02 0.52 19:12
Gold 100oz Future (USD/t oz.) 1,387.90 -0.90 -0.06 19:21
UBS Bloomberg CMCI 1,581.66 10.99 0.70 12/21


EUR-USD 1.3104 0.0004 0.0267% 19:32
USD-JPY 83.8050 0.0598 0.0713% 19:32
GBP-USD 1.5463 -0.0007 -0.0446% 19:33
USD-CAD 1.0174 0.0003 0.0253% 19:32

Rates & Bonds

Government Bonds

US 10-Year 2.625 11/15/2020 94-05½ / 3.32 0-04 / -0.015 19:29
Australia 10-Year 4.500 04/15/2020 92.32 / 5.57 -0.403 / 0.057 19:32
Brazil 10-Year 10.000 01/01/2021 896.56 / 12.51 0.552 / -0.317 12/21
Germany 10-Year 2.500 01/04/2021 95.83 / 2.99 -0.163 / 0.020 12/21
Japan 10-Year 1.200 12/20/2020 100.15 / 1.18 0.062 / -0.007 19:32
UK 10-Year 4.750 03/07/2020 109.71 / 3.51 -0.204 / 0.024 12/21

Key Rates

Fed Funds Rate 0.21 0.20 0.23 0.21 0.12
Fed Reserve Target Rate 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Prime Rate 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25
US Unemployment Rate 9.80 9.60 9.60 9.70 10.00
1-Month Libor 0.26 0.25 0.26 0.35 0.23
3-Month Libor 0.30 0.28 0.29 0.54 0.25

Easy Forex

Incubated with the efforts of a group of forex experts and bankers, Easy Forex came into being with the aim to launch a forex trading platform that any level of end user would love to use because of its simplified functionality. With an assumed market maker position, liquidity providers of Easy Forex are no other than The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and UBS (in Switzerland).
Headquartered in Cyprus, customer support centers and FX trading rooms of Easy Forex are available in several different countries. This broker was the first ever to provide no-download proprietary software platform to its traders. German, Greek, Chinese, English, Arabic, Polish and Hebrew are the languages in which this software can be accessed.
To add on more to the charm of the Easy Forex is their advanced technological approach that allows iPhone users to take advantage of almost all their services over the phone. Although this is not a complete trading platform that allows you to perform trading activity through your phone only, still you can check your Easy Forex account status, or the standing of the forex market via their amazing iPhone application.
Registration process and deposit of funds with Easy Forex is a cake walk. All major credit cards and Paypal are accepted for the deposits. Withdrawal process is also very simple, though you will have to talk to the company executive on phone before your first withdrawal. Provide the executive with an ID as well as your legitimate bank account details (to avoid any money laundering risks) and you are all good to go.
If you have the fundamental knowledge of the forex market terminology, there is no reason why you would face any difficulty in execution of deals with Easy Forex. Easy Forex provides extensive guidance and tutorials on their website for easy dealing in the Forex market via their software.
As soon as the registration is done, an account manager contacts every user to take them swiftly through the initial dealing stages. Account manager can be reached during the local working hours; however dealing room is open 24*7 for any technical assistance. Usually, Easy Forex lays a great emphasis on the customer service, which is evident from the fact that each trader is provided with their own account manager for quick and focused guidance. 
Advanced training for better trading and for optimum usage of the system is made available for the prominent members. What kind of account you wish to set up with Easy Forex depends on the amount of money you wish to put at stake. Get started with as less as $12.5 for a mini-account. Platinum, Gold and customized Import-Export account are some other account choices that are available. The selected account type also determines the spread that are offered. 10 pips are diced for a mini-account, 7 pips for the gold accounts, 5 pips for platinum accounts, and 3 pips are provided for the customized accounts. 
Apart from spreads, there is no other source by which Easy Forex earns, as no commission is charged for deals made on their system. The only exception is the renewal fee, which is charged to roll over positions from Day Trading over to the next trading day.
Any deal performed via products offered by Easy Forex can be adjusted easily to the market trends. Such adjustments can be made in the “My Position” section where all the deals can be controlled and monitored by the trader. Every trading account activity is recorded in the system as well as informed via an automatic email.
There are several other helpful sections provided by Easy Forex, like you may track your current balance, withdrawals, credit card charges, and all deposits in the “My Account” Section. The results of all closed deals can be seen in the “History” Section. For better and more lucrative decisions, traders are given easy access to Reuter’s world news feature, to know if there are any events that may affect the foreign exchange market. Useful and easy to understand charts, analytical tools and financial calendar are also made available to allow traders make informed forex decisions.
Considering the cordial customer support all through as well as an extensive understanding and guidance of forex offered by Easy Forex, it is pretty simply to trade with this system. All the features and trading tools are extremely user-friendly and very useful. With so many positives to count on, Easy Forex is definitely one of the best picks amongst forex brokers.
The simplicity of the Easy Forex system is reflected in the minimalistic feel of their website. But as you navigate a little, you get all that you want for successful trading, be it tools, support or information. Trading experience with Easy Forex is definitely a simplistic yet lucrative affair.

L'euro repart en baisse, les finances de l'Europe visées par les agences

L'euro est reparti en baisse mardi face au dollar, effaçant les gains engrangés plus tôt dans la journée après de nouvelles alertes sur la solidité financière de la zone euro lancées par les agences de notation.

Vers 22H00 GMT (23H00 à Paris), l'euro valait 1,3093 dollar contre 1,3126 dollar lundi vers 22H00 GMT, après être monté brièvement au-dessus de 1,32 dollar.

La monnaie européenne reculait face à la devise nippone à 109,69 yens contre 109,95 yens lundi soir.

Le dollar s'est stabilisé face au yen, à 83,76 yens contre 83,78 yens lundi soir.

La devise européenne s'était offert un court répit, soutenue par une remarque du vice-Premier ministre chinois Wang Qishan. Il a indiqué que Pékin aiderait certains pays membres de l'Union européenne (UE) à combattre la crise de leur dette souveraine, mettant en avant "l'intérêt fondamental de la Chine et de l'UE de renforcer leur coopération", selon l'agence Chine nouvelle.

Mais le soutien chinois "peut difficilement nourrir un retournement de tendance", car "la Chine ne peut apparaître comme une option alternative à une solution à long terme de la crise des dettes en Europe", a tempéré Ulrich Leuchtmann, de Commerzbank.

Le redressement de l'euro a été "étouffé dans l'oeuf", selon les analystes de Brown Brothers Harriman, alors que l'agence de notation Moody's a annoncé qu'elle plaçait la note du Portugal sous surveillance, réfléchissant à un possible abaissement d'un cran ou deux en raison de l'impact de son plan d'austérité sur son économie.

Par ailleurs, l'agence, qui a menacé la semaine dernière de dégrader la note de l'Espagne, a abaissé mardi les notes de deux régions espagnoles.

L'agence de notation Fitch Ratings a elle fait part de la possibilité d'abaisser la note de la Grèce, actuellement fixée à "BBB-" pour la dette long terme, ce qui relèguerait ce pays membre de la zone euro parmi les émetteurs considérés comme peu fiables.

"Les notes des dettes publiques de la zone euro sont des cibles mouvantes, avec des budgets et des chiffres de la dette amenés à se détériorer encore en 2011", ont estimé les analystes de Brown Brothers Harriman.

L'euro est en conséquence retombé à son plus bas niveau depuis deux semaines.

"Les acteurs de marché spéculent sur la possibilité pour le Portugal et l'Espagne de partager la mauvaise fortune de l'Irlande", a noté de son côté David Song, analyste de la société Daily FX, selon qui "les échanges devraient se montrer instables dans des volumes peu importants avant les vacances de Noël".

Signe de la prudence des cambistes, l'euro a touché mardi un nouveau plus bas historique face à la devise helvétique, considéré comme une valeur refuge, qui est montée jusqu'à 1,2545 franc suisse pour un euro.

Vers 22H00 GMT, la devise helvétique avançait face à l'euro à 1,2550 franc suisse pour un euro, comme face au billet vert à 0,9581 franc suisse pour un dollar.

La livre britanique se stabilisait face à l'euro à 84,63 pence pour un euro, et reculait face au billet vert à 1,5469 dollar.

La monnaie chinoise a terminé mardi à 6,6590 yuans pour un dollar contre 6,6725 yuans la veille.


Cours de mardi      Cours de lundi

              22H00 GMT            22H00 GMT

   EUR/USD            1,3093             1,3126
   EUR/JPY            109,69             109,95
   EUR/CHF            1,2550             1,2662
   EUR/GBP            0,8463             0,8461
   USD/JPY             83,90              83,78
   USD/CHF            0,9581             0,9644
   GBP/USD            1,5469             1,5506

The marketing mix

The marketing mix

In order to achieve your marketing objectives you need to have a strategy that includes different elements - the various parts of the marketing mix. Calling it a mix reminds you to try and get the balance right between the different elements. It is easy to assume that one part of the mix is wrong, when in fact it is another. For example, if take-up of a newly-priced service is poor, it could be that the answer is to change the service, or to deliver it in a way that is more convenient to the user, or to improve the quality of the promotion (rather than to cut the price).
McCarthy identified the four P's of the marketing mix:
  • Product Defining the characteristics of your product or service to meet the customers' needs.
  • Price: Deciding on a pricing strategy. Even if you decide not to charge for a service, it is useful to realise that this is still a pricing strategy. Identifying the total cost to the user (which is likely to be higher than the charge you make) is a part of the price element.
  • Promotion This includes advertising, personal selling (eg attending exhibitions), sales promotions (eg special offers), and atmospherics (creating the right impression through the working environment). Public Relations is included within Promotion by many marketing people (though PR people tend to see it as a separate discipline).
  • Place or distribution. Looking at location (eg of a library) and where a service is delivered (eg are search results delivered to the user's desktop, office, pigeonhole - or do they have to collect them).
There are two ways to impress bluffers.
You can extend the number of P's - the two which are usually seen as useful additions for services (including information services) are:
  • People Good information services are not likely to be delivered by people who are unskilled or demotivated;
  • Process The way in which the user gets hold of the service (eg the way in which a document or a search can be ordered).
The second way to show your marketing knowledge is to dismiss the P's as being as old fashioned as the 1980s For example, there are the C's developed by Robert Lauterborn (1) and put forward by Philip Kotler:
  • Place becomes Convenience
  • Price becomes Cost to the user
  • Promotion becomes Communication
  • Product becomes Customer needs and wants
These C's reflect a more client-oriented marketing philosophy. They provide useful reminders - for example that you need to bear in mind the convenience of the client when deciding where to offer a service. Some would argue that the marketing mix is too product-oriented, and that modern marketing should not focus on it. However, it does provide a handy framework for marketing analysis. The C's are also not nearly so memorable as the P-words, and marketing texts still tend to use the latter to describe the elements of the mix. If numbers less than 10 don't impress you, you can go for Evert Gummesson's 30Rs of relationship marketing (2), from Relationship one ("the classic dyad: the relationship between supplier and customer") to Relationship 30 ("the owner and financier relationship").

1. Lauterborn, Bob. (1990) "New marketing litany: four Ps passe: C-words take over." Advertising age. 61 (41), 26.
2. Gummesson, Evert. (2002) Total relationship marketing 2nd ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Super-bluffers can dismiss McCarthy and Kotler , and reinvent the P's or C's as (for example) the S's or the D's. If you can think of appropriate words and phrases, all beginning with the same letter, you probably deserve to be a marketing guru. On the other hand, you could take a quantitative approach and try to find 101 words beginning with the letter 'P' that all have some relationship, however tenuous, with marketing.

Developing Your Marketing

Your marketing mix is a combination of marketing tools that are used to satisfy customers and company objectives. Consumers often call the marketing mix "the offering." Your offer is controlled by the following variables often referred to as the four Ps in marketing:
  • Product
  • Price
  • Place (Distribution)
  • Promotion
By using variations of these four components you have the ability to reach multiple consumers within your target market.
Creating a successful marketing mix that will increase results often takes experimenting and market research. There are many methods that can be used, both in person and the use of impersonal presentations. The key is to not always depend on "one" mix always explore other avenues. The combining and coordination of these elements will be more effective than depending on one.
You must coordinate all elements so that the prospective consumer is not being sent mixed messages that can cause confusion. Do all of your elements contain the same message? Take for example the following scenario:
We are a company that specializes in marketing services and we cater to physicians, however the products we offer fulfill the needs of lead generation for lawyers. Our price is geared an enterprise budget and our magazine advertisements and promotions are being placed in magazines that have a subscription base of senior citizens.
Do you see a problem with this? While in this scenario it is very obvious, I guarantee that by looking at your marketing mix you may find discrepancies that surprise you. Always make sure that your marketing mix has a message that speaks in unison.
For instance make sure that if you have a practice that caters to a niche market that your product is geared towards the need of that market, your price is within the budget of that market, you are distribution your product or service where it will be seen by that market, and gear your promotion to solve the problems that they are encountering.
If you remember one thing from this article it is that one of the main keys to the success of any marketing program is the ability to work effectively in shaping marketing mixes that meet the nature and needs of your specified target market.